This guide walks you through the process of publishing and subscribing to messages using a JMS broker.

What you’ll build

You’ll build an application that uses Spring’s JmsTemplate to post a single message and subscribes to it with a @JmsListener annotated method of a managed bean.

What you’ll need

How to complete this guide

Like most Spring Getting Started guides, you can start from scratch and complete each step, or you can bypass basic setup steps that are already familiar to you. Either way, you end up with working code.

To start from scratch, move on to Build with Gradle.

To skip the basics, do the following:

When you’re finished, you can check your results against the code in gs-messaging-jms/complete.

Build with Gradle

Build with Gradle

First you set up a basic build script. You can use any build system you like when building apps with Spring, but the code you need to work with Gradle and Maven is included here. If you’re not familiar with either, refer to Building Java Projects with Gradle or Building Java Projects with Maven.

Create the directory structure

In a project directory of your choosing, create the following subdirectory structure; for example, with mkdir -p src/main/java/hello on *nix systems:

└── src
    └── main
        └── java
            └── hello

Create a Gradle build file

build.gradle

buildscript {
    repositories {
        mavenCentral()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-gradle-plugin:1.5.1.RELEASE")
    }
}

apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'eclipse'
apply plugin: 'idea'
apply plugin: 'org.springframework.boot'

jar {
    baseName = 'gs-messaging-jms'
    version =  '0.1.0'
}

repositories {
    mavenCentral()
}

sourceCompatibility = 1.8
targetCompatibility = 1.8

dependencies {
    compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-activemq")
    compile("org.apache.activemq:activemq-broker")
    compile("com.fasterxml.jackson.core:jackson-databind")
}

The Spring Boot gradle plugin provides many convenient features:

  • It collects all the jars on the classpath and builds a single, runnable "über-jar", which makes it more convenient to execute and transport your service.

  • It searches for the public static void main() method to flag as a runnable class.

  • It provides a built-in dependency resolver that sets the version number to match Spring Boot dependencies. You can override any version you wish, but it will default to Boot’s chosen set of versions.

Build with Maven

Build with Maven

First you set up a basic build script. You can use any build system you like when building apps with Spring, but the code you need to work with Maven is included here. If you’re not familiar with Maven, refer to Building Java Projects with Maven.

Create the directory structure

In a project directory of your choosing, create the following subdirectory structure; for example, with mkdir -p src/main/java/hello on *nix systems:

└── src
    └── main
        └── java
            └── hello

pom.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
    <artifactId>gs-messaging-jms</artifactId>
    <version>0.1.0</version>

    <parent>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-parent</artifactId>
        <version>1.5.1.RELEASE</version>
    </parent>

    <properties>
        <java.version>1.8</java.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-activemq</artifactId>
        </dependency>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.apache.activemq</groupId>
            <artifactId>activemq-broker</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <dependency>
            <groupId>com.fasterxml.jackson.core</groupId>
            <artifactId>jackson-databind</artifactId>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

    <build>
        <plugins>
            <plugin>
                <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
                <artifactId>spring-boot-maven-plugin</artifactId>
            </plugin>
        </plugins>
    </build>

</project>

The Spring Boot Maven plugin provides many convenient features:

  • It collects all the jars on the classpath and builds a single, runnable "über-jar", which makes it more convenient to execute and transport your service.

  • It searches for the public static void main() method to flag as a runnable class.

  • It provides a built-in dependency resolver that sets the version number to match Spring Boot dependencies. You can override any version you wish, but it will default to Boot’s chosen set of versions.

Build with your IDE

Build with your IDE

Create a message receiver

Spring provides the means to publish messages to any POJO.

src/main/java/hello/Receiver.java

package hello;

import org.springframework.jms.annotation.JmsListener;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

@Component
public class Receiver {

    @JmsListener(destination = "mailbox", containerFactory = "myFactory")
    public void receiveMessage(Email email) {
        System.out.println("Received <" + email + ">");
    }

}

This is also known as a message driven POJO. As you can see in the code above, there is no need to implement any particular interface or for the method to have any particular name. Besides, the method may have a very flexible signature; in our simple example we will just use a simple Email POJO that defines a to and body attributes. Note in particular that this class has no import on the JMS API.

The JmsListener annotation defines the name of the Destination that this method should listen to and the reference to the JmsListenerContainerFactory to use to create the underlying message listener container. Strictly speaking that last attribute is not necessary unless you need to customize the way the container is built as Spring Boot registers a default factory if necessary.

The reference documentation covers this in more detail.

Send and receive JMS messages with Spring

Next, wire up a sender and a receiver.

src/main/java/hello/Application.java

package hello;

import javax.jms.ConnectionFactory;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.jms.DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer;
import org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.jms.annotation.EnableJms;
import org.springframework.jms.config.DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory;
import org.springframework.jms.config.JmsListenerContainerFactory;
import org.springframework.jms.core.JmsTemplate;
import org.springframework.jms.support.converter.MappingJackson2MessageConverter;
import org.springframework.jms.support.converter.MessageConverter;
import org.springframework.jms.support.converter.MessageType;

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableJms
public class Application {

    @Bean
    public JmsListenerContainerFactory<?> myFactory(ConnectionFactory connectionFactory,
                                                    DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer configurer) {
        DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory factory = new DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactory();
        // This provides all boot's default to this factory, including the message converter
        configurer.configure(factory, connectionFactory);
        // You could still override some of Boot's default if necessary.
        return factory;
    }

    @Bean // Serialize message content to json using TextMessage
    public MessageConverter jacksonJmsMessageConverter() {
        MappingJackson2MessageConverter converter = new MappingJackson2MessageConverter();
        converter.setTargetType(MessageType.TEXT);
        converter.setTypeIdPropertyName("_type");
        return converter;
    }

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Launch the application
        ConfigurableApplicationContext context = SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);

        JmsTemplate jmsTemplate = context.getBean(JmsTemplate.class);

        // Send a message with a POJO - the template reuse the message converter
        System.out.println("Sending an email message.");
        jmsTemplate.convertAndSend("mailbox", new Email("[email protected]", "Hello"));
    }

}

@SpringBootApplication is a convenience annotation that adds all of the following:

  • @Configuration tags the class as a source of bean definitions for the application context.

  • @EnableAutoConfiguration tells Spring Boot to start adding beans based on classpath settings, other beans, and various property settings.

  • Normally you would add @EnableWebMvc for a Spring MVC app, but Spring Boot adds it automatically when it sees spring-webmvc on the classpath. This flags the application as a web application and activates key behaviors such as setting up a DispatcherServlet.

  • @ComponentScan tells Spring to look for other components, configurations, and services in the the hello package, allowing it to find the controllers.

The main() method uses Spring Boot’s SpringApplication.run() method to launch an application. Did you notice that there wasn’t a single line of XML? No web.xml file either. This web application is 100% pure Java and you didn’t have to deal with configuring any plumbing or infrastructure.

@EnableJms triggers the discovery of methods annotated with @JmsListener, creating the message listener container under the covers.

For clarity, we have also defined a myFactory bean that is referenced in the JmsListener annotation of the receiver. Because we use the DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer infrastructure provided by Spring Boot, that JmsMessageListenerContainer will be identical to the one that boot creates by default.

The default MessageConverter is able to convert only basic types (such as String, Map, Serializable) and our Email is not Serializable on purpose. We want to use Jackson and serialize the content to json in text format (i.e. as a TextMessage). Spring Boot will detect the presence of a MessageConverter and will associate it to both the default JmsTemplate and any JmsListenerContainerFactory created by DefaultJmsListenerContainerFactoryConfigurer.

JmsTemplate makes it very simple to send messages to a JMS destination. In the main runner method, after starting things up, you can just use jmsTemplate to send an Email POJO. Because our custom MessageConverter has been automatically associated to it, a json document will be generated in a TextMessage only.

Two beans that you don’t see defined are JmsTemplate and ConnectionFactory. These are created automatically by Spring Boot. In this case, the ActiveMQ broker runs embedded.

By default, Spring Boot creates a JmsTemplate configured to transmit to queues by having pubSubDomain set to false. The JmsMessageListenerContainer is also configured the same. To override, set spring.jms.isPubSubDomain=true via Boot’s property settings (either inside application.properties or by environment variable). Then make sure the receiving container has the same setting.

Spring’s JmsTemplate can receive messages directly through its receive method, but that only works synchronously, meaning it will block. That’s why we recommend that you use a listener container such as DefaultMessageListenerContainer with a cache-based connection factory, so you can consume messages asynchronously and with maximum connection efficiency.

Build an executable JAR

You can run the application from the command line with Gradle or Maven. Or you can build a single executable JAR file that contains all the necessary dependencies, classes, and resources, and run that. This makes it easy to ship, version, and deploy the service as an application throughout the development lifecycle, across different environments, and so forth.

If you are using Gradle, you can run the application using ./gradlew bootRun. Or you can build the JAR file using ./gradlew build. Then you can run the JAR file:

java -jar build/libs/gs-messaging-jms-0.1.0.jar

If you are using Maven, you can run the application using ./mvnw spring-boot:run. Or you can build the JAR file with ./mvnw clean package. Then you can run the JAR file:

java -jar target/gs-messaging-jms-0.1.0.jar
The procedure above will create a runnable JAR. You can also opt to build a classic WAR file instead.

When it runs, buried amidst all the logging, you should see these messages:

Sending an email message.
Received <[email protected], body=Hello}>

Summary

Congratulations! You’ve just developed a publisher and consumer of JMS-based messages.

Want to write a new guide or contribute to an existing one? Check out our contribution guidelines.

All guides are released with an ASLv2 license for the code, and an Attribution, NoDerivatives creative commons license for the writing.