It has sometimes been suggested that Spring and Spring Boot are “heavyweight”, perhaps just because they allow apps to punch above their weight, providing a lot of features for not very much user code. In this article we concentrate on memory usage and ask if we can quantify the effect of using Spring? Specifically we would like to know more about the real overhead of using Spring compared to other JVM applications. We start by creating a basic application with Spring Boot, and look at a few different ways to measure it when it is running. Then we look at some comparison points: plain Java apps, apps that use Spring but not Spring Boot, an app that uses Spring Boot but no autoconfiguration, and some Ratpack sample apps.
There are some new features in Spring Boot 1.3 to do with OAuth2 clients and servers and Spring Security OAuth2. Some of those features were ported from Spring Cloud Security and hence were in the Angel release train of Spring Cloud, but are not in the Brixton release train. This article helps you navigate the changes and update any existing apps to use the new features.
If you are not using Spring Cloud you should be able to just change the version number of your Spring Boot dependency. Since some of the OAuth2 features migrated from Spring Cloud Security to Spring Boot in 1.3, it is likely that things are slightly more complicated than that. A separate article deals with upgrading Spring Cloud apps from Spring Boot 1.2 to 1.3. If you are using the Spring Cloud Angel release train then you should consult that article for details of how to manage the dependencies (independent of any specific features).
There are some interesting new features in Spring Boot 1.3 that are now available in Spring Cloud in the Brixton release train. The Angel release train of Spring Cloud is partly incompatible with Spring Boot 1.3, so when you upgrade there are some important things to be aware of. This article helps you navigate the changes and update any existing apps to use the new features. It should also be helpful generally when trying to adopt new versions of Spring projects into existing codebases.
TIP: You can use
gradle dependenciesto list the dependencies in your project and check the versions.
The latest version of Spring Cloud is “Angel.SR3” and it is available now from the usual repositories (note the new naming convention, more detail below). Most components are now at 1.0.2.RELEASE, but spring-cloud-netflix is at 1.0.3.RELEASE. The starters and cli and also at 1.0.3.RELEASE, reflecting their dependency on Netflix. Angel.SR3 is a bugfix release for Angel.SR2 (formerly known as 1.0.2) and all existing projects are encouraged to upgrade to take advantage.
There are a few new features, the biggest of which is the new naming convention for the starter parent project (see below). Highlights include:
In this article we look at how to bind a Spring Boot application to data services (JDBC, NoSQL, messaging etc.) and the various sources of default and automatic behaviour in Cloud Foundry, providing some guidance about which ones to use and which ones will be active under what conditions. Spring Boot provides a lot of autoconfiguration and external binding features, some of which are relevant to Cloud Foundry, and many of which are not. Spring Cloud Connectors is a library that you can use in your application if you want to create your own components programmatically, but it doesn’t do anything “magical” by itself. And finally there is the Cloud Foundry java buildpack which has an “auto-reconfiguration” feature that tries to ease the burden of moving simple applications to the cloud. The key to correctly configuring middleware services, like JDBC or AMQP or Mongo, is to understand what each of these tools provides, how they influence each other at runtime, and and to switch parts of them on and off. The goal should be a smooth transition from local execution of an application on a developer’s desktop to a test environment in Cloud Foundry, and ultimately to production in Cloud Foundry (or otherwise) with no changes in source code or packaging, per the twelve-factor application guidelines.
Note: the source code and test for this blog continue to evolve, but the changes to the text are not being maintained here. Please see the tutorial version for the most up to date content.
In this article we continue our discussion of how to use Spring Security with Angular JS in a “single page application”. Here we show how to use Spring Session together with Spring Cloud to combine the features of the systems we built in parts II and IV, and actually end up building 3 single page applications with quite different responsibilities. The aim is to build a Gateway (like in part IV) that is used not only for API resources but also to load the UI from a backend server. We simplify the token-wrangling bits of part II by using the Gateway to pass through the authentication to the backends. Then we extend the system to show how we can make local, granular access decisions in the backends, while still controlling identity and authentication at the Gateway. This is a very powerful model for building distributed systems in general, and has a number of benefits that we can explore as we introduce the features in the code we build.
Spring Cloud 1.0.0.RELEASE is available now in Maven Central (and repo.spring.io). Not too many changes since RC3 but we did find a few bugs, thanks largely to community involvement, so thanks to all who tried it out up to now. Here is a reminder of the goals of Spring Cloud:
Spring Cloud provides tools for developers to quickly build some of the common patterns in distributed systems (e.g. configuration management, service discovery, circuit breakers, intelligent routing, micro-proxy, control bus, one-time tokens, global locks, leadership election, distributed sessions, cluster state). Coordination of distributed systems leads to boiler plate patterns, and using Spring Cloud developers can quickly stand up services and applications that implement those patterns. They will work well in any distributed environment, including the developer’s own laptop, bare metal data centres, and managed platforms such as Cloud Foundry.
Spring Cloud 1.0.0.RC3 is available now from https://repo.spring.io/libs-milestone-local. This is (hopefully) the last milestone release before 1.0.0. There were some bug fixes since 1.0.0.RC2 and also a few small new features:
- Refactored the Feign support to look a bit more like Spring Data (so
- Support for multipart/form-data in the Zuul proxy
- Support for including and excluding remote services in the automatic route registration in Zuul
- Support for declarative Ribbon retry in Zuul
- Cleaned up of a lot of dependencies. If you use the spring-cloud-starters you should get a nice consistent experience of adding and subtracting features. Gradle users need to use the dependency management plugin for the same experience.
- Added small, bite-sized sample projects for integration testing of classpath isolation issues.