Messaging with RabbitMQ

This guide walks you through the process of creating a Spring Boot application that publishes and subscribes to a RabbitMQ AMQP server.

What You Will Build

You will build an application that publishes a message by using Spring AMQP’s RabbitTemplate and subscribes to the message on a POJO by using MessageListenerAdapter.

What You Need

  • About 15 minutes

  • A favorite text editor or IDE

  • Java 17 or later

How to Complete This Guide

Like most Spring Getting Started guides you can start from scratch and complete each step, or you can jump straight to the solution, by viewing the code in this repository.

To see the end result in your local environment, you can do one of the following:

Setting up the RabbitMQ Broker

Before you can build your messaging application, you need to set up a server to handle receiving and sending messages. This guide assumes that you use Spring Boot Docker Compose support. A prerequisite of this approach is that your development machine has a Docker environment, such as Docker Desktop, available. Add a dependency spring-boot-docker-compose that does the following:

  • Search for a compose.yml and other common compose filenames in your working directory

  • Call docker compose up with the discovered compose.yml

  • Create service connection beans for each supported container

  • Call docker compose stop when the application is shutdown

To use Docker Compose support, you need only follow this guide. Based on the dependencies you pull in, Spring Boot finds the correct compose.yml file and start your Docker container when you run your application.

If you choose to run the RabbitMQ server yourself instead of using Spring Boot Docker Compose support, you have a few options:

  • Download the server and manually run it

  • Install with Homebrew, if you use a Mac

  • Manually run the compose.yaml file with docker-compose up

If you go with any of these alternate approaches, you should remove the spring-boot-docker-compose dependency from the Maven or Gradle build file. You will also need to add configuration to an file, as described in greater detail in the Preparing to Build the Application section. As mentioned earlier, this guide assumes that you use Docker Compose support in Spring Boot, so additional changes to are not required at this point.

Starting with Spring Initializr

You can use this pre-initialized project and click Generate to download a ZIP file. This project is configured to fit the examples in this guide.

To manually initialize the project:

  1. Navigate to This service pulls in all the dependencies you need for an application and does most of the setup for you.

  2. Choose either Gradle or Maven and the language you want to use. This guide assumes that you chose Java.

  3. Click Dependencies and select Spring for RabbitMQ and Docker Compose Support.

  4. Click Generate.

  5. Download the resulting ZIP file, which is an archive of an application that is configured with your choices.

If your IDE has the Spring Initializr integration, you can complete this process from your IDE.

Create a RabbitMQ Message Receiver

With any messaging-based application, you need to create a receiver that responds to published messages. The following listing (from src/main/java/com/example/messagingrabbitmq/ shows how to do so:

package com.example.messagingrabbitmq;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

public class Receiver {

  private CountDownLatch latch = new CountDownLatch(1);

  public void receiveMessage(String message) {
    System.out.println("Received <" + message + ">");

  public CountDownLatch getLatch() {
    return latch;


The Receiver is a POJO that defines a method for receiving messages. When you register it to receive messages, you can name it anything you want.

For convenience, this POJO also has a CountDownLatch. This lets it signal that the message has been received. This is something you are not likely to implement in a production application.

Register the Listener and Send a Message

Spring AMQP’s RabbitTemplate provides everything you need to send and receive messages with RabbitMQ. However, you need to:

  • Configure a message listener container.

  • Declare the queue, the exchange, and the binding between them.

  • Configure a component to send some messages to test the listener.

Spring Boot automatically creates a connection factory and a RabbitTemplate, reducing the amount of code you have to write.

You will use RabbitTemplate to send messages, and you will register a Receiver with the message listener container to receive messages. The connection factory drives both, letting them connect to the RabbitMQ server. The following listing (from src/main/java/com/example/messagingrabbitmq/ shows how to create the application class:

package com.example.messagingrabbitmq;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.Binding;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.BindingBuilder;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.TopicExchange;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.connection.ConnectionFactory;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.listener.SimpleMessageListenerContainer;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.listener.adapter.MessageListenerAdapter;
import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;

public class MessagingRabbitmqApplication {

  static final String topicExchangeName = "spring-boot-exchange";

  static final String queueName = "spring-boot";

  Queue queue() {
    return new Queue(queueName, false);

  TopicExchange exchange() {
    return new TopicExchange(topicExchangeName);

  Binding binding(Queue queue, TopicExchange exchange) {
    return BindingBuilder.bind(queue).to(exchange).with("");

  SimpleMessageListenerContainer container(ConnectionFactory connectionFactory,
      MessageListenerAdapter listenerAdapter) {
    SimpleMessageListenerContainer container = new SimpleMessageListenerContainer();
    return container;

  MessageListenerAdapter listenerAdapter(Receiver receiver) {
    return new MessageListenerAdapter(receiver, "receiveMessage");

  public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {, args).close();


The @SpringBootApplication annotation offers a number of benefits, as described in the reference documentation.

The bean defined in the listenerAdapter() method is registered as a message listener in the container (defined in container()). It listens for messages on the spring-boot queue. Because the Receiver class is a POJO, it needs to be wrapped in the MessageListenerAdapter, where you specify that it invokes receiveMessage.

JMS queues and AMQP queues have different semantics. For example, JMS sends queued messages to only one consumer. While AMQP queues do the same thing, AMQP producers do not send messages directly to queues. Instead, a message is sent to an exchange, which can go to a single queue or fan out to multiple queues, emulating the concept of JMS topics.

The message listener container and receiver beans are all you need to listen for messages. To send a message, you also need a Rabbit template.

The queue() method creates an AMQP queue. The exchange() method creates a topic exchange. The binding() method binds these two together, defining the behavior that occurs when RabbitTemplate publishes to an exchange.

Spring AMQP requires that the Queue, the TopicExchange, and the Binding be declared as top-level Spring beans in order to be set up properly.

In this case, we use a topic exchange, and the queue is bound with a routing key of, which means that any messages sent with a routing key that begins with are routed to the queue.

Send a Test Message

In this sample, test messages are sent by a CommandLineRunner, which also waits for the latch in the receiver and closes the application context. The following listing (from src/main/java/com.example.messagingrabbitmq/ shows how it works:

package com.example.messagingrabbitmq;

import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;
import org.springframework.boot.CommandLineRunner;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

public class Runner implements CommandLineRunner {

  private final RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;
  private final Receiver receiver;

  public Runner(Receiver receiver, RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate) {
    this.receiver = receiver;
    this.rabbitTemplate = rabbitTemplate;

  public void run(String... args) throws Exception {
    System.out.println("Sending message...");
    rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(MessagingRabbitmqApplication.topicExchangeName, "", "Hello from RabbitMQ!");
    receiver.getLatch().await(10000, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS);


Notice that the template routes the message to the exchange with a routing key of, which matches the binding.

In tests, you can mock out the runner so that the receiver can be tested in isolation.

Run the Application

The main() method starts that process by creating a Spring application context. This starts the message listener container, which starts listening for messages. There is a Runner bean, which is then automatically run. It retrieves the RabbitTemplate from the application context and sends a Hello from RabbitMQ! message on the spring-boot queue. Finally, it closes the Spring application context, and the application ends.

You can run the main method through your IDE. Note that, if you have cloned the project from the solution repository, your IDE may look in the wrong place for the compose.yaml file. You can configure your IDE to look in the correct place or you could use the command line to run the application. The ./gradlew bootRun and ./mvnw spring-boot:run commands will launch the application and automatically find the compose.yaml file.

Preparing to Build the Application

To run the code without Spring Boot Docker Compose support, you need a version of RabbitMQ running locally to connect to. To do this, you can use Docker Compose, but you must first make two changes to the compose.yaml file. First, modify the ports entry in compose.yaml to be '5672:5672'. Second, add a container_name.

The compose.yaml should now be:

    container_name: 'guide-rabbit'
    image: 'rabbitmq:latest'
      - 'RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_PASS=secret'
      - 'RABBITMQ_DEFAULT_USER=myuser'
      - '5672:5672'

You can now run docker-compose up to start the RabbitMQ service. Now you should have an external RabbitMQ server that is ready to accept requests.

Additionally, you need to tell Spring how to connect to the RabbitMQ server (this was handled automatically with Spring Boot Docker Compose support). Add the following code to a new file in src/main/resources:


Building the Application

This section describes different ways to run this guide:

Regardless of how you choose to run the application, the output should be the same.

To run the application, you can package the application as an executable jar. The ./gradlew clean build command compiles the application to an executable jar. You can then run the jar with the java -jar build/libs/messaging-rabbitmq-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar command.

Alternatively, if you have a Docker environment available, you could create a Docker image directly from your Maven or Gradle plugin, using buildpacks. With Cloud Native Buildpacks, you can create Docker compatible images that you can run anywhere. Spring Boot includes buildpack support directly for both Maven and Gradle. This means you can type a single command and quickly get a sensible image into a locally running Docker daemon. To create a Docker image using Cloud Native Buildpacks, run the ./gradlew bootBuildImage command. With a Docker environment enabled, you can run the application with the docker run --network container:guide-rabbit command.

The --network flag tells Docker to attach our guide container to the existing network that our external container is using. You can find more information in the Docker documentation.

Regardless of how you chose to build and run the application, you should see the following output:

    Sending message...
    Received <Hello from RabbitMQ!>


Congratulations! You have just developed a simple publish-and-subscribe application with Spring and RabbitMQ. You can do more with Spring and RabbitMQ than what is covered here, but this guide should provide a good start.

See Also

Additional Spring AMQP Samples

The following guides may also be helpful:

Want to write a new guide or contribute to an existing one? Check out our contribution guidelines.

All guides are released with an ASLv2 license for the code, and an Attribution, NoDerivatives creative commons license for the writing.

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