Introducing Kotlin support in Spring Framework 5.0

Engineering | Sébastien Deleuze | January 04, 2017 | ...

Update: a comprehensive Spring Boot + Kotlin tutorial is now available.

Following the Kotlin support on we introduced a few months ago, we have continued to work to ensure that Spring and Kotlin play well together. One of the key strengths of Kotlin is that it provides a very good interoperability with libraries written in Java. But there are ways to go even further and allow writing fully idiomatic Kotlin code when developing your next Spring application. In addition to Spring Framework support for Java 8 that Kotlin applications can leverage like functional web or bean registration APIs, there are additional Kotlin dedicated features that should allow you to reach a new level of productivity.

That’s why we are introducing a dedicated Kotlin support in Spring Framework 5.0, and I would like to summarize in this blog post the features that are designed to make your developer experience seamless when using these technologies together. You can use this link to find Kotlin related issues in Spring Framework bug tracker.

A key building block of our Kotlin support is Kotlin extensions. They allow to extend existing APIs in a non-intrusive way, providing a better alternative to utility classes or Kotlin specific class hierarchies to add Kotlin dedicated features to Spring. Some libraries like KotlinPrimavera from Mario Arias have already showed various kind of Kotlin helpers we can bring to Spring API in order to allow writing more idiomatic code. With Spring Framework 5, we integrate the most useful and popular extensions in Spring Framework dependencies, and we are adding new ones! Be aware that Kotlin extensions are statically resolved, you have to import them (like static imports in Java).

##Null-safety of Spring Framework API

Spring Framework 5.0 introduces a formal non-null API declaration for all packages, with explicitly nullable arguments and return values annotated as such now. Our nullability annotations are compliant with JSR 305 and are going to be supported by Kotlin as soon as KT-10942 is fixed. This will make the whole Spring Framework API null-safe from Kotlin side and will allow to deal for null values at compile time rather than throwing NullPointerExceptions at runtime.

##Leveraging Kotlin nullable information in Spring annotations

Originally based on a community contribution from Raman Gupta, Spring now takes advantage of Kotlin null-safety support to determine if an HTTP parameter is required without having to define explicitly the required attribute. That means @RequestParam name: String? with be treated as not required and @RequestParam name: String as required. This is also supported on Spring Messaging @Header annotation.

In a similar fashion, Spring bean injection with @Autowired or @Inject uses this information to know if a bean is required or not. @Autowired lateinit var foo: Foo implies that a bean of type Foo must be registered in the application context while @Autowired lateinit var foo: Foo? won’t raise an error if such bean does not exist.

##Spring WebFlux functional DSL

Spring Framework 5.0 comes with a Kotlin routing DSL that allows you to leverage the Spring Functional Web API recently announced with clean and idiomatic Kotlin code:

router {
    ("/blog" and accept(TEXT_HTML)).nest {
        GET("/", fooHandler::findAllView)
        GET("/{slug}", fooHandler::findOneView)
    ("/api/blog" and accept(APPLICATION_JSON)).nest {
        GET("/", barHandler::findAll)
        GET("/{id}", barHandler::findOne)

Thanks to Yevhenii Melnyk for its early prototype and help! You can see a concrete example of Spring Boot application using the functional web API at

##Functional bean declaration DSL

Spring Framework 5.0 introduces a new way to register beans using lambda as an alternative to XML or JavaConfig with @Configuration and @Bean. In a nutshell, it makes it possible to register beans with a Supplier lambda that acts as a FactoryBean.

In Java you will for example write:

GenericApplicationContext context = new GenericApplicationContext();
context.registerBean(Bar.class, () -> new 

While in Kotlin, reified type parameters and the functional bean declaration DSL allow us to simply write:

beans {
    bean { Bar(ref()) }

ApplicationContext related Kotlin extensions available are BeanFactoryExtensions, ListableBeanFactoryExtensions, GenericApplicationContextExtensions and AnnotationConfigApplicationContextExtensions.

##Extensions for RestTemplate and WebClient API

For example, Kotlin reified type parameters provide a workaround for JVM generics type erasure, so we have introduced some extensions to take advantage of this feature to provide a better API when possible.

That allows to provide convenient API for RestTemplate for example (thanks to Jon Schneider from Netflix for contributing this) and for the new WebClient Spring WebFlux API. For example, to retrieve a list of Foo objects in Java you have to write:

Flux<User> users  = client.get().retrieve().bodyToFlux(User.class)

While in Kotlin with Spring Framework 5 extensions you will be able to write:

val users = client.get().retrieve().bodyToFlux<User>()
// or (both are equivalent)
val users : Flux<User> = client.get().retrieve().bodyToFlux()

Like in Java, users in Kotlin is strongly typed but Kotlin clever type inference allows shorter syntax.

Web API Kotlin extensions available in Spring Framework 5.0 are RestOperationsExtensions, ServerRequestExtensions, BodyInsertersExtensions, BodyExtractorsExtensions, ClientResponseExtensions, ModelExtensions and ModelMapExtensions.

It is also interesting to notice that other Spring projects like Spring Data MongoDB also provide builtin support for Kotlin with such extensions.

##Reactor Kotlin builtin support

Reactor is the reactive foundation Spring Framework 5.0 is built upon, and there are good chances you are going to use its Mono, Flux and StepVerifier APIs when developing a reactive web application.

So today we are also introducing Kotlin builtin support in upcoming Reactor 3.1 release! It provides extensions to be able to create Mono instances from any class instance by writing foo.toMono() which many will prefer to Mono.just(foo). It also supports for example creating a Flux from a Java 8 Stream instance with stream.toFlux(). Iterable, CompletableFuture and Throwable extensions as well as KClass based variants of Reactor API are also provided.

##No need to declare your bean class as open anymore

Until now, one of the few pain points you faced when building a Spring Boot application with Kotlin was the need to add an open keyword on each class and their member functions of Spring beans proxified with CGLIB like @Configuration classes. The root cause of this requirement comes from the fact that in Kotlin, classes are final by default.

Fortunately, Kotlin 1.0.6 now provides a kotlin-spring plugin that open classes and their member functions by default for classes annotated or meta-annotated with one of the following annotation:

  • @Component
  • @Async
  • @Transactional
  • @Cacheable

Meta-annotations support means that classes annotated with@Configuration, @Controller, @RestController, @Service or @Repository are automatically opened since these annotations are meta-annotated with @Component.

We have updated to enabled it by default. You can have a look to this Kotlin 1.0.6 blog post for more details, including the new kotlin-jpa and kotlin-noarg plugins really useful with Spring Data entities.

##Kotlin based Gradle build configuration

Back in May, Gradle announced that they are going to support writing build and config files in Kotlin in addition to Groovy. This makes it possible to have full auto-completion and validation in your IDE, because such files are regular statically-typed Kotlin Script files. This is likely to become the natural choice for Kotlin based project, but this is also valuable for Java projects too.

Since May, the kotlin-dsl Gradle project has continued to evolve, and is now usable with 2 warnings to keep in mind:

  • You need Kotlin 1.1 IDEA plugin to get autocompletion
  • The documentation is not complete, but the Gradle team is really helpful on the #gradle channel of the Kotlin Slack and this should be improved for the 1.0 release.

Both spring-boot-kotlin-demo and mixit projects use such Kotlin based Gradle builds, so feel free to have a look. We are discussing adding such support on

##Kotlin Script based templates

As of version 4.3, Spring Framework provides a ScriptTemplateView to render templates using script engines that supports JSR-223 and Spring Framework 5.0 go even further by supporting i18n and nested templates. Kotlin 1.1 provides such support and allows to render Kotlin based templates, see this commit for details.

This enables some interesting use cases like writing type-safe templates using kotlinx.html DSL or simply Kotlin multiline String with interpolation, as demonstrated in this kotlin-script-templating project. This could allow you to write this kind of templates with full autocompletion and refactoring support in your IDE:

import io.spring.demo.*

    ${users.joinToLine{ "<li>${i18n("user")} ${it.firstname} ${it.lastname}</li>" }}


The more I write Spring Boot applications with Kotlin, the more I feel these 2 technologies share the same mindset and allow you to write applications more efficiently with expressive, short and readable code, and Spring Framework 5 Kotlin support is a significant step towards combining these technologies in a natural, simple and powerful way.

Kotlin can be used to write annotation-based Spring Boot applications, but will also be a good fit with the new kind of functional and reactive applications that Spring Framework 5.0 will enable.

Kotlin team did a great job by fixing almost all the pain points we reported, so big thanks to them. The upcoming Kotlin 1.2 release is expected to also fix KT-11235 in order to allow specifying array annotation attribute single value without arrayOf(). The main remaining issue you will face is maybe KT-14984 that will require specifying explicitly lambda type where just specifying { } should be enough.

Feel free to test Spring Framework 5.0 Kotlin support by going to and generating a Spring Boot 2.0.0 (milestone or snapshot) project and send us your feedback here or in the #spring channel of Kotlin Slack. You can also contribute the Kotlin extensions you need ;-)

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